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Grover Miller

Title Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
DepartmentBiochemistry & Molecular Biology, College of Medicine
DivisionBiochemistry & Molecular Xenobiotic
AddressB421A Biomedical Research I
325 S. Elm St.
Mail Slot # 516
Little Rock AR 72205
Phone501-526-6486
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-4743-8187 Additional info
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    Other Positions
    TitleAssociate Professor
    InstitutionUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
    DepartmentBiomedical Informatics, College of Medicine


    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    My goals are to assess the biological significance of metabolic activation and clearance of molecules especially related to pharmacological and toxicological effects. In practice, my group leverages powerful analytical and biochemical tools to identify and quantitate small molecules including drugs, pollutants, and food additives during metabolism and correlate findings to biological activity and in vivo outcomes such as liver toxicity. Individual projects aim to (1) determine metabolic mechanisms, efficiencies, and fluxes for activation and elimination of toxic molecules, (2) identify metabolite biomarkers in humans and animal models for correlating in vitro findings to in vivo outcomes and leveraging their diagnostic, theragnostic, and prognostic potential, and (3) develop computational models for drug bioactivation and clearance contributing to adverse drug events to make drugs safer for clinical use. Moreover, I seek translation of novel analytical and diagnostic tools into practical, commercially viable tools. Over time, my research expanded from detailed in vitro metabolic studies to metabolite profiling for translational studies and development of models of metabolism, structure, and reactivity that were made possible through strong, interdisciplinary collaborations.


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LABS05/1992Chemistry (minor English)
    Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LABS05/1992Biochemistry (minor French)
    Pennsylvania State University, State College, PAPhD12/1997Chemistry
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TNPostdoctoral fellow08/2001Biochemistry

    Collapse Research Funds 
    Collapse research activities
    R01LM012482     (MILLER, GROVER P)Sep 1, 2016 - Aug 31, 2020
    NIH/NLM
    Computationally modeling the impact of ontogeny on drug metabolic fate
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01LM012222     (SWAMIDASS, S JOSHUA)May 1, 2016 - Apr 30, 2020
    NIH/NLM
    DATA AND TOOLS FOR MODELING METABOLISM AND REACTIVITY
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    13GRNT16960043     (MILLER, GROVER)Jul 1, 2014 - Jun 30, 2015
    American Heart Association (SouthWest Affiliate)
    Improving pediatric anticoagulant therapy through metabolic profiling of patients
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21ES023046     (BOYSEN, GUNNAR)May 7, 2014 - Apr 30, 2016
    NIH/NIEHS
    Effects of Genetic Diversity on Carcinogen Metabolism
    Role: Co-Investigator

    R01ES004344     (MILLER, GROVER)May 1, 2009 - Jan 31, 2012
    NIH/Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences - Pass Through: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
    Toxicological Significance of Alkylbenzene Metabolism
    Role: Principal Investigator

    0265258Z     (MILLER, GROVER)Jul 1, 2002 - Jun 30, 2004
    American Heart Association (Midwest Affiliate)
    Investigating the Role of Protein-protein Interactions in the Oxidation of Fatty Acids by Cytochrome P4504A11
    Role: Principal Investigator

    P20RR15569     (RANEY, KEVIN)Oct 1, 2000 - Sep 30, 2001
    NIH/Nat. Center for Research Resources
    NIH COBRE Center for Protein Structure and Function
    Role: Principal Investigator

    F32GM019808     (MILLER, GROVER P)Jun 15, 1999
    NIH/NIGMS
    RATE LIMITING STEPS IN CYTOCHROME P450 CATALYSIS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01GM075893     (RADOMINSKA-PANDYA, ANNA)Jun 1, 1996 - Jul 31, 2012
    NIH/NIGMS
    Structure-Function of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions. Don't see publications published under other names? Login to add alternative names.
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    1. Barnette DA, Davis MA, Flynn N, Pidugu AS, Swamidass SJ, Miller GP. Comprehensive kinetic and modeling analyses revealed CYP2C9 and 3A4 determine terbinafine metabolic clearance and bioactivation. Biochem Pharmacol. 2019 Dec; 170:113661. PMID: 31605674.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Khojasteh SC, Bumpus NN, Driscoll JP, Miller GP, Mitra K, Rietjens IMCM, Zhang D. Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions - 2018 literature highlights. Drug Metab Rev. 2019 05; 51(2):121-161. PMID: 31170851.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Matlock MK, Tambe A, Elliott-Higgins J, Hines RN, Miller GP, Swamidass SJ. A Time-Embedding Network Models the Ontogeny of 23 Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes. Chem Res Toxicol. 2019 Aug 19; 32(8):1707-1721. PMID: 31304741.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Davis MA, Barnette DA, Flynn NR, Pidugu AS, Swamidass SJ, Boysen G, Miller GP. CYP2C19 and 3A4 Dominate Metabolic Clearance and Bioactivation of Terbinafine Based on Computational and Experimental Approaches. Chem Res Toxicol. 2019 06 17; 32(6):1151-1164. PMID: 30925039.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Freyaldenhoven S, Li Y, Kocabas AM, Ziu E, Ucer S, Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa R, Miller GP, Kilic F. Withdrawal: The role of ERp44 in maturation of serotonin transporter protein. J Biol Chem. 2019 01 04; 294(1):70. PMID: 30610126.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Pouncey DL, Hartman JH, Moore PC, Dillinger DJ, Dickerson KW, Sappington DR, Smith ES, Boysen G, Miller GP. Novel isomeric metabolite profiles correlate with warfarin metabolism phenotype during maintenance dosing in a pilot study of 29 patients. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2018 Nov; 29(7):602-612. PMID: 30334816.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Barnette DA, Davis MA, Dang NL, Pidugu AS, Hughes T, Swamidass SJ, Boysen G, Miller GP. Lamisil (terbinafine) toxicity: Determining pathways to bioactivation through computational and experimental approaches. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018 10; 156:10-21. PMID: 30076845.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Khojasteh SC, Miller GP, Mitra K, Rietjens IMCM. Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions - 2017 literature highlights *. Drug Metab Rev. 2018 08; 50(3):221-255. PMID: 29954222.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Kim SY, Jones DR, Kang JY, Yun CH, Miller GP. Regioselectivity significantly impacts microsomal glucuronidation efficiency of R/S-6, 7-, and 8-hydroxywarfarin. Xenobiotica. 2019 Apr; 49(4):397-403. PMID: 29543105.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Dang NL, Hughes TB, Miller GP, Swamidass SJ. Computationally Assessing the Bioactivation of Drugs by N-Dealkylation. Chem Res Toxicol. 2018 02 19; 31(2):68-80. PMID: 29355304.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Barnette DA, Johnson BP, Pouncey DL, Nshimiyimana R, Desrochers LP, Goodwin TE, Miller GP. Stereospecific Metabolism of R- and S-Warfarin by Human Hepatic Cytosolic Reductases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2017 09; 45(9):1000-1007. PMID: 28646078.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Hartman JH, Miller GP, Meyer JN. Toxicological Implications of Mitochondrial Localization of CYP2E1. Toxicol Res (Camb). 2017; 6(3):273-289. PMID: 28989700.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Dang NL, Hughes TB, Miller GP, Swamidass SJ. Computational Approach to Structural Alerts: Furans, Phenols, Nitroaromatics, and Thiophenes. Chem Res Toxicol. 2017 04 17; 30(4):1046-1059. PMID: 28256829.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Hartman JH, Miller GP, Caro AA, Byrum SD, Orr LM, Mackintosh SG, Tackett AJ, MacMillan-Crow LA, Hallberg LM, Ameredes BT, Boysen G. 1,3-Butadiene-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is correlated with mitochondrial CYP2E1 activity in Collaborative Cross mice. Toxicology. 2017 03 01; 378:114-124. PMID: 28082109.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Hughes TB, Dang NL, Miller GP, Swamidass SJ. Modeling Reactivity to Biological Macromolecules with a Deep Multitask Network. ACS Cent Sci. 2016 Aug 24; 2(8):529-37. PMID: 27610414.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Bostian AC, Maddukuri L, Reed MR, Savenka T, Hartman JH, Davis L, Pouncey DL, Miller GP, Eoff RL. Kynurenine Signaling Increases DNA Polymerase Kappa Expression and Promotes Genomic Instability in Glioblastoma Cells. Chem Res Toxicol. 2016 Jan 19; 29(1):101-8. PMID: 26651356.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Hartman JH, Martin HC, Caro AA, Pearce AR, Miller GP. Subcellular localization of rat CYP2E1 impacts metabolic efficiency toward common substrates. Toxicology. 2015 Dec 02; 338:47-58. PMID: 26463279.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Hartman JH, Letzig LG, Roberts DW, James LP, Fifer EK, Miller GP. Cooperativity in CYP2E1 metabolism of acetaminophen and styrene mixtures. Biochem Pharmacol. 2015 Oct 01; 97(3):341-9. PMID: 26225832.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Hughes TB, Miller GP, Swamidass SJ. Modeling Epoxidation of Drug-like Molecules with a Deep Machine Learning Network. ACS Cent Sci. 2015 Jul 22; 1(4):168-80. PMID: 27162970.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Hughes TB, Miller GP, Swamidass SJ. Site of reactivity models predict molecular reactivity of diverse chemicals with glutathione. Chem Res Toxicol. 2015 Apr 20; 28(4):797-809. PMID: 25742281.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Levy JW, Hartman JH, Perry MD, Miller GP. Structural basis for cooperative binding of azoles to CYP2E1 as interpreted through guided molecular dynamics simulations. J Mol Graph Model. 2015 Mar; 56:43-52. PMID: 25544389.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Pugh CP, Pouncey DL, Hartman JH, Nshimiyimana R, Desrochers LP, Goodwin TE, Boysen G, Miller GP. Multiple UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in human liver microsomes glucuronidate both R- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin into two metabolites. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014 Dec 15; 564:244-53. PMID: 25447818.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Hartman JH, Miller GP, Boysen G. Inhibitory potency of 4-carbon alkanes and alkenes toward CYP2E1 activity. Toxicology. 2014 Apr 06; 318:51-8. PMID: 24561005.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Hartman JH, Knott K, Miller GP. CYP2E1 hydroxylation of aniline involves negative cooperativity. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Feb 01; 87(3):523-33. PMID: 24345333.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Pianalto KM, Hartman JH, Boysen G, Miller GP. Differences in butadiene adduct formation between rats and mice not due to selective inhibition of CYP2E1 by butadiene metabolites. Toxicol Lett. 2013 Nov 25; 223(2):221-7. PMID: 24021170.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Hartman JH, Bradley AM, Laddusaw RM, Perry MD, Miller GP. Structure of pyrazole derivatives impact their affinity, stoichiometry, and cooperative interactions for CYP2E1 complexes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013 Sep 01; 537(1):12-20. PMID: 23811196.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Hartman JH, Cothren SD, Park SH, Yun CH, Darsey JA, Miller GP. Predicting CYP2C19 catalytic parameters for enantioselective oxidations using artificial neural networks and a chirality code. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Jul 01; 21(13):3749-59. PMID: 23673224.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Hartman JH, Boysen G, Miller GP. Cooperative effects for CYP2E1 differ between styrene and its metabolites. Xenobiotica. 2013 Sep; 43(9):755-64. PMID: 23327532.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Kim SY, Kang JY, Hartman JH, Park SH, Jones DR, Yun CH, Boysen G, Miller GP. Metabolism of R- and S-warfarin by CYP2C19 into four hydroxywarfarins. Drug Metab Lett. 2012 Sep 01; 6(3):157-64. PMID: 23331088.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Hartman JH, Boysen G, Miller GP. CYP2E1 metabolism of styrene involves allostery. Drug Metab Dispos. 2012 Oct; 40(10):1976-83. PMID: 22807108.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Freyaldenhoven S, Li Y, Kocabas AM, Ziu E, Ucer S, Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa R, Miller GP, Kilic F. The role of ERp44 in maturation of serotonin transporter protein. J Biol Chem. 2012 May 18; 287(21):17801-11. PMID: 22451649.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Freyaldenhoven, S, Li, Y, Kocabas, AM, Ziu, E, Ucer, S, Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa, R, Miller GP, Kilic, F. The Role of ERp44 on Maturation of Serotonin Transporter Proteins. J Biol Chem. 2012; 287:17801-11.
    33. Jones DR, Miller GP. Assays and applications in warfarin metabolism: what we know, how we know it and what we need to know. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2011 Jul; 7(7):857-74. PMID: 21480820.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Jones DR, Boysen G, Miller GP. Novel multi-mode ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for profiling enantiomeric hydroxywarfarins and warfarin in human plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011 May 01; 879(15-16):1056-62. PMID: 21470921.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Jones, DR, Boysen, G, Miller GP. Novel Dual-Phase Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay for Profiling Enantiomeric Hydroxywarfarins and Warfarin in Human Plasma. J Chromatogr B. 2011; 879:1056-62.
    36. Miller GP. Warfarin therapy: how the less interesting half just got interesting. J Thromb Haemost. 2010 Dec; 8(12):2705-7. PMID: 21138521.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Jones DR, Kim SY, Boysen G, Yun CH, Miller GP. Contribution of three CYP3A isoforms to metabolism of R- and S-warfarin. Drug Metab Lett. 2010 Dec; 4(4):213-9. PMID: 20615193.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Jones DR, Kim SY, Guderyon M, Yun CH, Moran JH, Miller GP. Hydroxywarfarin metabolites potently inhibit CYP2C9 metabolism of S-warfarin. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010 May 17; 23(5):939-45. PMID: 20429590.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Jang HH, Jamakhandi AP, Sullivan SZ, Yun CH, Hollenberg PF, Miller GP. Beta sheet 2-alpha helix C loop of cytochrome P450 reductase serves as a docking site for redox partners. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Jun; 1804(6):1285-93. PMID: 20152939.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Jones DR, Moran JH, Miller GP. Warfarin and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases: writing a new chapter of metabolism. Drug Metab Rev. 2010 Feb; 42(1):55-61. PMID: 19788348.
      View in: PubMed
    41. William L., Miller GP. Chemistry Demystified. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2010.
    42. Miller GP, Jones DR, Sullivan SZ, Mazur A, Owen SN, Mitchell NC, Radominska-Pandya A, Moran JH. Assessing cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase contributions to warfarin metabolism in humans. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009 Jul; 22(7):1239-45. PMID: 19408964.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Mazur A, Lichti CF, Prather PL, Zielinska AK, Bratton SM, Gallus-Zawada A, Finel M, Miller GP, Radominska-Pandya A, Moran JH. Characterization of human hepatic and extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes involved in the metabolism of classic cannabinoids. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jul; 37(7):1496-504. PMID: 19339377.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Mazur, A, Lichti, CF, Prather, P, Zielinska, AK, Bratton, SM, Gallus-Zawada, A, Finel, M, Miller, GP, Radominska-Pandya, A, Moran, JH. Characterization of human hepatic and extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGTs) enzymes involved in the metabolism of classical cannabinoids. Drug Metab Dispo. 2009; 37:1496-504.
    45. Miller GP, Lichti CF, Zielinska AK, Mazur A, Bratton SM, Gallus-Zawada A, Finel M, Moran JH, Radominska-Pandya A. Identification of hydroxywarfarin binding site in human UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1a10: phenylalanine90 is crucial for the glucuronidation of 6- and 7-hydroxywarfarin but not 8-hydroxywarfarin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Nov; 36(11):2211-8. PMID: 18725508.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Miller GP. Advances in the interpretation and prediction of CYP2E1 metabolism from a biochemical perspective. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Aug; 4(8):1053-64. PMID: 18680440.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Miller, GP, Lichti, CF, Zielinska, AK, Bratton, SM, Mazur, A, Gallus-Zawada, A, Finel, M, Moran, JH, Radominska-Pandya, A. Identification of hydroxywarfarin binding site in human UGT1A10: Phenylalanine90 is crucial for the glucuronidation of 6- and 7-hydroxy- but not 8-hydroxywarfarin. Drug Metab Dispo. 2008; 36:2211-8.
    48. Collom SL, Laddusaw RM, Burch AM, Kuzmic P, Perry MD, Miller GP. CYP2E1 substrate inhibition. Mechanistic interpretation through an effector site for monocyclic compounds. J Biol Chem. 2008 Feb 08; 283(6):3487-96. PMID: 18056994.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Xiong Y, Patana AS, Miley MJ, Zielinska AK, Bratton SM, Miller GP, Goldman A, Finel M, Redinbo MR, Radominska-Pandya A. The first aspartic acid of the DQxD motif for human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A10 interacts with UDP-glucuronic acid during catalysis. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Mar; 36(3):517-22. PMID: 18048489.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Zielinska A, Lichti CF, Bratton S, Mitchell NC, Gallus-Zawada A, Le VH, Finel M, Miller GP, Radominska-Pandya A, Moran JH. Glucuronidation of monohydroxylated warfarin metabolites by human liver microsomes and human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Jan; 324(1):139-48. PMID: 17921187.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Jamakhandi AP, Kuzmic P, Sanders DE, Miller GP. Global analysis of protein-protein interactions reveals multiple CYP2E1-reductase complexes. Biochemistry. 2007 Sep 04; 46(35):10192-201. PMID: 17685587.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Jamakhandi, AP, Kuzmic, P, Sanders, DA, Miller G. Global Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions Reveals Multiple Cytochrome P450 2E1-Reductase Complexes. Biochemistry. 2007; 46:10192-201.
    53. Collom SL, Jamakhandi AP, Tackett AJ, Radominska-Pandya A, Miller GP. CYP2E1 active site residues in substrate recognition sequence 5 identified by photoaffinity labeling and homology modeling. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Mar 01; 459(1):59-69. PMID: 17222385.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Jamakhandi AP, Jeffus BC, Dass VR, Miller GP. Thermal inactivation of the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005 Jul 15; 439(2):165-74. PMID: 15950923.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Guengerich FP, Miller GP, Hanna IH, Martin MV, Léger S, Black C, Chauret N, Silva JM, Trimble LA, Yergey JA, Nicoll-Griffith DA. Diversity in the oxidation of substrates by cytochrome P450 2D6: lack of an obligatory role of aspartate 301-substrate electrostatic bonding. Biochemistry. 2002 Sep 10; 41(36):11025-34. PMID: 12206675.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Guengerich FP, Miller GP, Hanna IH, Sato H, Martin MV. Oxidation of methoxyphenethylamines by cytochrome P450 2D6. Analysis of rate-limiting steps. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 13; 277(37):33711-9. PMID: 12093814.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Guengerich, FP, Miller G, Hanna, IH, Leger, S, Black, C, Chauret, N, Silva, JM, Trimble, L, Yergey, JA, Nicoll-Griffith, D. Diversity in the Oxidation of Substrates by Cytochrome P450 2D6: Lack of a role of aspartate 301-substrate electrostatic bonding. Biochemistry. 2002; 41:11025-34.
    58. Guengerich, FP, Miller G, Hanna, IH, Sato, H, Martin, MV. Oxidation of Methoxyphenethylamines by Cytochrome P450 2D6: Analysis of rate-limiting steps. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277:33711-19.
    59. Yun, CH, Miller G, Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of p-alkyoxyacylanilides Catalyzed by Human Cytochrome P450 1A2. Biochemistry. 2001; 40:4521-30.
    60. Miller G, Hanna, IH, Nishimura, Y, Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of Phenethylamine Derivative by Cytochrome P450 2D6: The issue of substrate protonation in binding and catalysis. Biochemistry. 2001; 40:14215-23.
    61. Miller G, Wahnon, DC, Benkovic, SJ. Investigating the Importance of Interloop Contacts during Catalysis by Escherichia coli Dihydrofolate Reductase. Biochemistry. 2001; 40:867-75.
    62. Miller G. Binding and Oxidation of Alkyl 4-Nitrophenyl Ethers by Rabbit Cytochrome P450 1A2: Evidence for two binding sites. Biochemistry. 2001; 40:4762-72.
    63. Hosea, NA, Miller G, Guengerich, FP. Elucidation of Distinct Binding Sites for Chtochrome P450 3A4. Biochemistry. 2000; 39:5929-39.
    64. Yun, CH, Miller G, Guengerich, FP. Rate-determining Steps in Phenacetin Oxidations by Human Cytochrome P450 1A2 and Selected Mutants. Biochemistry. 2000; 39:11319-29.
    65. Miller G, Benkovic, SJ. Strength of an Interloop Hydrogen Bond Determines the Kinetic Pathway in Catalysis by Escherichia coli Dihydrofolate Reductase. Biochemistry. 1998; 37:6336-42.
    66. Miller G, Benkovic, SJ. Deletion of a Highly Motional Residue Affects the Formation of the Michaelis Complex for Escherichia coli Dihyrofolate Reductase. Biochemistry,. 1998; 37,:6327-35.
    67. Miller G, Benkovic, S.J. Stretching Exercises--Flexibility in dihydrofolate reductase catalysis. Chemistry and Biology. 1998; 5:R105-13.
    68. Miller G, Posner, BA, Benkovic, SJ. Expanding the 43C9 Class of Catalytic Antibodies using a Chain-shuffling Approach. Bioorg Med Chem. 1997; 5:581-90.
    69. Miller G, Zhong, W., Smiley, J.A., Benkovic, S.J. Combinatorial Approaches to Drug Discovery. Combinatorial Libraries of Peptides, Proteins, and Antibodies using Biological Systems. 1997.
    70. Liotta, LJ, Miller G, Benkovic, PA. A Catalytic Antibody for Imide Hydrolysis Featuring a Bifunctional Transition-state Mimic. J Am Chem Soc. 1993; 115:350-1.
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