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Gerald Dienel

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
DepartmentNeurology, College of Medicine
DivisionNeurology Administration
Address4301 W Markham St.
Mail Slot # 830
Little Rock AR 72205
Phone501-603-1167
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    Collapse Research Funds 
    Collapse research activities
    R01DK081936     (DIENEL, GERALD A.)Jul 1, 2009 - Jun 30, 2013
    NIH/NIDDK
    Endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic brain
    Role: Principal Investigator

    IIRG-06-26022     (DIENEL, GERALD)Sep 1, 2006 - Aug 31, 2009
    Alzheimer's Association
    Astrocyte metabolite trafficking and brain imaging in Alzheimer model mice
    Role: Principal Investigator

    P30NS047546     (DREW, PAUL D)Aug 15, 2004 - Jul 31, 2010
    NIH/NINDS
    Neuroscience Research Center Core Facility at UAMS
    Role: Co-Investigator

    R13NS044890     (PARPURA, VLADIMIR)Feb 15, 2003 - Jan 31, 2008
    NIH/NINDS
    Glial Biology Gordon Research Conference
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    R56NS038230     (DIENEL, GERALD A.)Dec 23, 1999 - Aug 31, 2011
    NIH/NINDS
    Functional activity in glia
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01NS038230     (DIENEL, GERALD A.)Dec 23, 1999 - Nov 30, 2004
    NIH/NINDS
    FUNCTIONAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY IN GLIA IN VIVO
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01NS036728     (DIENEL, GERALD A.)Mar 1, 1999 - Nov 30, 2008
    NIH/NINDS
    Functional Metabolism in Working Brain
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01NS36728     (DIENEL, GERALD)Mar 1, 1999 - Nov 30, 2007
    NIH/Nat. Inst. of Neurological Disorders & Stroke
    Functional Metabolism in Working Brain
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions. Don't see publications published under other names? Login to add alternative names.
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    1. Dienel GA. The "protected" glucose transport through the astrocytic endoplasmic reticulum is too slow to serve as a quantitatively-important highway for nutrient delivery. J Neurosci Res. 2019 Aug; 97(8):854-862. PMID: 31050047.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Dienel GA. Does shuttling of glycogen-derived lactate from astrocytes to neurons take place during neurotransmission and memory consolidation? J Neurosci Res. 2019 Aug; 97(8):863-882. PMID: 30667077.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Rothman DL, Dienel GA. Development of a Model to Test Whether Glycogenolysis Can Support Astrocytic Energy Demands of Na+, K+-ATPase and Glutamate-Glutamine Cycling, Sparing an Equivalent Amount of Glucose for Neurons. Adv Neurobiol. 2019; 23:385-433. PMID: 31667817.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Dienel GA, Carlson GM. Major Advances in Brain Glycogen Research: Understanding of the Roles of Glycogen Have Evolved from Emergency Fuel Reserve to Dynamic, Regulated Participant in Diverse Brain Functions. Adv Neurobiol. 2019; 23:1-16. PMID: 31667804.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Dienel GA, Rothman DL. Glycogenolysis in Cerebral Cortex During Sensory Stimulation, Acute Hypoglycemia, and Exercise: Impact on Astrocytic Energetics, Aerobic Glycolysis, and Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions. Adv Neurobiol. 2019; 23:209-267. PMID: 31667811.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Dienel GA. Brain Glucose Metabolism: Integration of Energetics with Function. Physiol Rev. 2019 01 01; 99(1):949-1045. PMID: 30565508.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Benveniste H, Dienel G, Jacob Z, Lee H, Makaryus R, Gjedde A, Hyder F, Rothman DL. Trajectories of Brain Lactate and Re-visited Oxygen-Glucose Index Calculations Do Not Support Elevated Non-oxidative Metabolism of Glucose Across Childhood. Front Neurosci. 2018; 12:631. PMID: 30254563.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Dienel GA. Metabolomic Assays of Postmortem Brain Extracts: Pitfalls in Extrapolation of Concentrations of Glucose and Amino Acids to Metabolic Dysregulation In Vivo in Neurological Diseases. Neurochem Res. 2019 Oct; 44(10):2239-2260. PMID: 30117094.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Carlson GM, Dienel GA, Colbran RJ. Introduction to the Thematic Minireview Series: Brain glycogen metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2018 05 11; 293(19):7087-7088. PMID: 29514979.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Dienel GA, Behar KL, Rothman DL. Cellular Origin of [18F]FDG-PET Imaging Signals During Ceftriaxone-Stimulated Glutamate Uptake: Astrocytes and Neurons. Neuroscientist. 2018 08; 24(4):316-328. PMID: 29276856.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Dienel GA. Lack of appropriate stoichiometry: Strong evidence against an energetically important astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle in brain. J Neurosci Res. 2017 11; 95(11):2103-2125. PMID: 28151548.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Cruz NF, Dienel GA, Patrick PA, Cooper AJL. Organ Distribution of 13N Following Intravenous Injection of [13N]Ammonia into Portacaval-Shunted Rats. Neurochem Res. 2017 Jun; 42(6):1683-1696. PMID: 27822667.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Dienel GA, Rothman DL, Nordström CH. Microdialysate concentration changes do not provide sufficient information to evaluate metabolic effects of lactate supplementation in brain-injured patients. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2016 11; 36(11):1844-1864. PMID: 27604313.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Dienel GA, Cruz NF. Aerobic glycolysis during brain activation: adrenergic regulation and influence of norepinephrine on astrocytic metabolism. J Neurochem. 2016 07; 138(1):14-52. PMID: 27166428.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Dienel GA. In memoriam Louis Sokoloff, M.D. 1921-2015. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2016 Feb; 36(2):278-80. PMID: 26661214.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Dienel GA, Cruz NF. Biochemical, Metabolic, and Behavioral Characteristics of Immature Chronic Hyperphenylalanemic Rats. Neurochem Res. 2016 Feb; 41(1-2):16-32. PMID: 26224289.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Sokoloff L, Driscoll BF. Determination of Glucose Utilization Rates in Cultured Astrocytes and Neurons with [14C]deoxyglucose: Progress, Pitfalls, and Discovery of Intracellular Glucose Compartmentation. Neurochem Res. 2017 Jan; 42(1):50-63. PMID: 26141225.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Dienel GA. The metabolic trinity, glucose-glycogen-lactate, links astrocytes and neurons in brain energetics, signaling, memory, and gene expression. Neurosci Lett. 2017 01 10; 637:18-25. PMID: 25725168.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Dienel GA. Lactate shuttling and lactate use as fuel after traumatic brain injury: metabolic considerations. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014 Nov; 34(11):1736-48. PMID: 25204393.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Hertz L, Gibbs ME, Dienel GA. Fluxes of lactate into, from, and among gap junction-coupled astrocytes and their interaction with noradrenaline. Front Neurosci. 2014; 8:261. PMID: 25249930.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Dienel GA, McKenna MC. A dogma-breaking concept: glutamate oxidation in astrocytes is the source of lactate during aerobic glycolysis in resting subjects. J Neurochem. 2014 Nov; 131(4):395-8. PMID: 25130422.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Dienel GA, Cruz NF. Contributions of glycogen to astrocytic energetics during brain activation. Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Feb; 30(1):281-98. PMID: 24515302.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Takano T, He W, Han X, Wang F, Xu Q, Wang X, Oberheim Bush NA, Cruz N, Dienel GA, Nedergaard M. Rapid manifestation of reactive astrogliosis in acute hippocampal brain slices. Glia. 2014 Jan; 62(1):78-95. PMID: 24272704.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Dienel GA, Cruz NF. Reduced clearance of proteins labeled with diisopropylfluorophosphate in portacaval-shunted rats. Metab Brain Dis. 2014 Dec; 29(4):1041-52. PMID: 24154686.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Mergenthaler P, Lindauer U, Dienel GA, Meisel A. Sugar for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and pathological brain function. Trends Neurosci. 2013 Oct; 36(10):587-97. PMID: 23968694.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Dienel GA. Astrocytic energetics during excitatory neurotransmission: What are contributions of glutamate oxidation and glycolysis? Neurochem Int. 2013 Oct; 63(4):244-58. PMID: 23838211.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Cruz NF, Ball KK, Froehner SC, Adams ME, Dienel GA. Regional registration of [6-(14)C]glucose metabolism during brain activation of a-syntrophin knockout mice. J Neurochem. 2013 Apr; 125(2):247-59. PMID: 23346911.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Lind KR, Ball KK, Cruz NF, Dienel GA. The unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured astrocytes and rat brain during experimental diabetes. Neurochem Int. 2013 Apr; 62(5):784-95. PMID: 23411409.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Dienel GA. Exploring and mapping the world of astrocytes. Neurochem Res. 2012 Nov; 37(11):2295-8. PMID: 22864771.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Dienel GA. Fueling and imaging brain activation. ASN Neuro. 2012 Jul 20; 4(5). PMID: 22612861.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Dienel GA. Brain lactate metabolism: the discoveries and the controversies. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2012 Jul; 32(7):1107-38. PMID: 22186669.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Adam-Vizi V, Dienel GA, Schousboe A, McKenna MC. The 9th International Conference on Brain Energy Metabolism, Mitochondrial-Cytosolic Interactions. Introduction. J Neurosci Res. 2011 Dec; 89(12):1895-6. PMID: 21910137.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Ball KK, Harik L, Gandhi GK, Cruz NF, Dienel GA. Reduced gap junctional communication among astrocytes in experimental diabetes: contributions of altered connexin protein levels and oxidative-nitrosative modifications. J Neurosci Res. 2011 Dec; 89(12):2052-67. PMID: 21567444.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Dienel GA. Astrocytes are 'good scouts': being prepared also helps neighboring neurons. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010 Dec; 30(12):1893-4. PMID: 20827263.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Cruz NF, Ball KK, Dienel GA. Astrocytic gap junctional communication is reduced in amyloid-ß-treated cultured astrocytes, but not in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. ASN Neuro. 2010 Aug 17; 2(4):e00041. PMID: 20730033.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Gandhi GK, Ball KK, Cruz NF, Dienel GA. Hyperglycaemia and diabetes impair gap junctional communication among astrocytes. ASN Neuro. 2010 Mar 15; 2(2):e00030. PMID: 20396375.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Ball KK, Cruz NF, Mrak RE, Dienel GA. Trafficking of glucose, lactate, and amyloid-beta from the inferior colliculus through perivascular routes. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010 Jan; 30(1):162-76. PMID: 19794399.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Gandhi GK, Cruz NF, Ball KK, Dienel GA. Astrocytes are poised for lactate trafficking and release from activated brain and for supply of glucose to neurons. J Neurochem. 2009 Oct; 111(2):522-36. PMID: 19682206.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Gandhi GK, Cruz NF, Ball KK, Theus SA, Dienel GA. Selective astrocytic gap junctional trafficking of molecules involved in the glycolytic pathway: impact on cellular brain imaging. J Neurochem. 2009 Aug; 110(3):857-69. PMID: 19457076.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Dienel GA, Cruz NF. Exchange-mediated dilution of brain lactate specific activity: implications for the origin of glutamate dilution and the contributions of glutamine dilution and other pathways. J Neurochem. 2009 May; 109 Suppl 1:30-7. PMID: 19393006.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Dienel GA, Cruz NF. Imaging brain activation: simple pictures of complex biology. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Dec; 1147:139-70. PMID: 19076439.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Cruz NF, Ball KK, Dienel GA. Functional imaging of focal brain activation in conscious rats: impact of [(14)C]glucose metabolite spreading and release. J Neurosci Res. 2007 11 15; 85(15):3254-66. PMID: 17265468.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Ball KK, Gandhi GK, Thrash J, Cruz NF, Dienel GA. Astrocytic connexin distributions and rapid, extensive dye transfer via gap junctions in the inferior colliculus: implications for [(14)C]glucose metabolite trafficking. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Nov 15; 85(15):3267-83. PMID: 17600824.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Dienel GA, Schmidt KC, Cruz NF. Astrocyte activation in vivo during graded photic stimulation. J Neurochem. 2007 Nov; 103(4):1506-22. PMID: 17725580.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Dienel GA, Ball KK, Cruz NF. A glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor selectively enhances local rates of glucose utilization in brain during sensory stimulation of conscious rats: implications for glycogen turnover. J Neurochem. 2007 Jul; 102(2):466-78. PMID: 17442042.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Romanovsky D, Cruz NF, Dienel GA, Dobretsov M. Mechanical hyperalgesia correlates with insulin deficiency in normoglycemic streptozotocin-treated rats. Neurobiol Dis. 2006 Nov; 24(2):384-94. PMID: 16935517.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Hertz L, Peng L, Dienel GA. Energy metabolism in astrocytes: high rate of oxidative metabolism and spatiotemporal dependence on glycolysis/glycogenolysis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007 Feb; 27(2):219-49. PMID: 16835632.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Dienel GA, Cruz NF. Astrocyte activation in working brain: energy supplied by minor substrates. Neurochem Int. 2006 May-Jun; 48(6-7):586-95. PMID: 16513214.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Cetin N, Dienel G, Gokden M. CD117 expression in glial tumors. J Neurooncol. 2005 Nov; 75(2):195-202. PMID: 16132504.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Takano T, Kang J, Jaiswal JK, Simon SM, Lin JH, Yu Y, Li Y, Yang J, Dienel G, Zielke HR, Nedergaard M. Receptor-mediated glutamate release from volume sensitive channels in astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 08; 102(45):16466-71. PMID: 16254051.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Lasater A, Cruz NF, Cheng J, Jandik P, Dienel GA. Scaling up a microbore separation for semipreparative analysis: differential recoveries of radiolabeled amino acids. Anal Biochem. 2005 Jul 01; 342(1):28-33. PMID: 15958177.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Dienel GA, Hertz L. Astrocytic contributions to bioenergetics of cerebral ischemia. Glia. 2005 Jun; 50(4):362-88. PMID: 15846808.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Cruz NF, Lasater A, Zielke HR, Dienel GA. Activation of astrocytes in brain of conscious rats during acoustic stimulation: acetate utilization in working brain. J Neurochem. 2005 Feb; 92(4):934-47. PMID: 15686496.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Hertz L, Dienel GA. Lactate transport and transporters: general principles and functional roles in brain cells. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Jan 1-15; 79(1-2):11-8. PMID: 15586354.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Dienel GA. Lactate muscles its way into consciousness: fueling brain activation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004 Sep; 287(3):R519-21. PMID: 15308501.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Dienel G. Glial biology: functional interactions among glia and neurons. Neurochem Int. 2004 Jul-Aug; 45(2-3):189-90. PMID: 15145536.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Dienel GA, Cruz NF. Nutrition during brain activation: does cell-to-cell lactate shuttling contribute significantly to sweet and sour food for thought? Neurochem Int. 2004 Jul-Aug; 45(2-3):321-51. PMID: 15145548.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Dienel GA, Cruz NF. Neighborly interactions of metabolically-activated astrocytes in vivo. Neurochem Int. 2003 Sep-Oct; 43(4-5):339-54. PMID: 12742078.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Cetin N, Ball K, Gokden M, Cruz NF, Dienel GA. Effect of reactive cell density on net [2-14C]acetate uptake into rat brain: labeling of clusters containing GFAP+- and lectin+-immunoreactive cells. Neurochem Int. 2003 Apr; 42(5):359-74. PMID: 12510019.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Ball K, Popp D, Gokden M, Baron S, Wright D, Wenger GR. Behavioral training increases local astrocytic metabolic activity but does not alter outcome of mild transient ischemia. Brain Res. 2003 Jan 31; 961(2):201-12. PMID: 12531487.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Dienel GA, Wang RY, Cruz NF. Generalized sensory stimulation of conscious rats increases labeling of oxidative pathways of glucose metabolism when the brain glucose-oxygen uptake ratio rises. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002 Dec; 22(12):1490-502. PMID: 12468893.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Cruz NF, Dienel GA. High glycogen levels in brains of rats with minimal environmental stimuli: implications for metabolic contributions of working astrocytes. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002 Dec; 22(12):1476-89. PMID: 12468892.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Uc EY, Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Harik SI. ß-Adrenergics enhance brain extraction of levodopa. Mov Disord. 2002 01; 17(1):54-9. PMID: 11835439.
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    64. Hertz L, Dienel GA. Energy metabolism in the brain. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2002; 51:1-102. PMID: 12420357.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Dienel GA, Liu K, Cruz NF. Local uptake of (14)C-labeled acetate and butyrate in rat brain in vivo during spreading cortical depression. J Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec 01; 66(5):812-20. PMID: 11746406.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Dienel GA, Hertz L. Glucose and lactate metabolism during brain activation. J Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec 01; 66(5):824-38. PMID: 11746408.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Dienel GA, Popp D, Drew PD, Ball K, Krisht A, Cruz NF. Preferential labeling of glial and meningial brain tumors with [2-(14)C]acetate. J Nucl Med. 2001 Aug; 42(8):1243-50. PMID: 11483687.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Madsen PL, Cruz NF, Sokoloff L, Dienel GA. Cerebral oxygen/glucose ratio is low during sensory stimulation and rises above normal during recovery: excess glucose consumption during stimulation is not accounted for by lactate efflux from or accumulation in brain tissue. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1999 Apr; 19(4):393-400. PMID: 10197509.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Cruz NF, Adachi K, Dienel GA. Rapid efflux of lactate from cerebral cortex during K+ -induced spreading cortical depression. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1999 Apr; 19(4):380-92. PMID: 10197508.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Dienel GA, Liu K, Popp D, Cruz NF. Enhanced acetate and glucose utilization during graded photic stimulation. Neuronal-glial interactions in vivo. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999; 893:279-81. PMID: 10672248.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Adachi K, Sokoloff L, Holden JE. Determination of local brain glucose level with [14C]methylglucose: effects of glucose supply and demand. Am J Physiol. 1997 11; 273(5):E839-49. PMID: 9374668.
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    72. Sheu KF, Calingasan NY, Dienel GA, Baker H, Jung EH, Kim KS, Paoletti F, Gibson GE. Regional reductions of transketolase in thiamine-deficient rat brain. J Neurochem. 1996 Aug; 67(2):684-91. PMID: 8764596.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Nakanishi H, Cruz NF, Adachi K, Sokoloff L, Dienel GA. Influence of glucose supply and demand on determination of brain glucose content with labeled methylglucose. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1996 May; 16(3):439-49. PMID: 8621748.
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    74. Dienel GA, Tofel-Grehl B, Cruz CC, Luludis K, Pettigrew K, Sokoloff L, Gibson GE. Determination of local rates of 45Ca influx into rat brain by quantitative autoradiography: studies of aging. Am J Physiol. 1995 Aug; 269(2 Pt 2):R453-62. PMID: 7653670.
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    75. Schmidt KC, Mies G, Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Crane AM, Sokoloff L. Analysis of time courses of metabolic precursors and products in heterogeneous rat brain tissue: limitations of kinetic modeling for predictions of intracompartmental concentrations from total tissue activity. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1995 May; 15(3):474-84. PMID: 7714006.
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    76. Frerichs KU, Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Sokoloff L, Hallenbeck JM. Rates of glucose utilization in brain of active and hibernating ground squirrels. Am J Physiol. 1995 Feb; 268(2 Pt 2):R445-53. PMID: 7864240.
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    77. Adachi K, Cruz NF, Sokoloff L, Dienel GA. Labeling of metabolic pools by [6-14C]glucose during K(+)-induced stimulation of glucose utilization in rat brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1995 Jan; 15(1):97-110. PMID: 7798343.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Wang RY, Dienel GA. Ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection: recoveries of 14C-labeled metabolites. Biotechniques. 1994 Jul; 17(1):106, 108, 110 passim. PMID: 7946292.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Cruz NF, Dienel GA. Brain glucose levels in portacaval-shunted rats with chronic, moderate hyperammonemia: implications for determination of local cerebral glucose utilization. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994 Jan; 14(1):113-24. PMID: 8263046.
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    80. Dienel GA, Cruz NF. Synthesis of deoxyglucose-1-phosphate, deoxyglucose-1,6-bisphosphate, and other metabolites of 2-deoxy-D-[14C]glucose in rat brain in vivo: influence of time and tissue glucose level. J Neurochem. 1993 Jun; 60(6):2217-31. PMID: 8492127.
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    81. Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Sokoloff L. Metabolites of 2-deoxy-[14C]glucose in plasma and brain: influence on rate of glucose utilization determined with deoxyglucose method in rat brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1993 Mar; 13(2):315-27. PMID: 8436625.
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    82. Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Nakanishi H, Melzer P, Moulis P, Sokoloff L. Comparison of rates of local cerebral glucose utilization determined with deoxy[1-14C]glucose and deoxy[6-14C]glucose. J Neurochem. 1992 Oct; 59(4):1430-6. PMID: 1402893.
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    83. Holden JE, Mori K, Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Nelson T, Sokoloff L. Modeling the dependence of hexose distribution volumes in brain on plasma glucose concentration: implications for estimation of the local 2-deoxyglucose lumped constant. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1991 Mar; 11(2):171-82. PMID: 1997495.
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    84. Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Mori K, Holden JE, Sokoloff L. Direct measurement of the lambda of the lumped constant of the deoxyglucose method in rat brain: determination of lambda and lumped constant from tissue glucose concentration or equilibrium brain/plasma distribution ratio for methylglucose. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1991 Jan; 11(1):25-34. PMID: 1984002.
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    85. Jay TM, Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Mori K, Nelson T, Sokoloff L. Metabolic stability of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose in brain and other tissues. J Neurochem. 1990 Sep; 55(3):989-1000. PMID: 2200849.
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    86. Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Mori K, Sokoloff L. Acid lability of metabolites of 2-deoxyglucose in rat brain: implications for estimates of kinetic parameters of deoxyglucose phosphorylation and transport between blood and brain. J Neurochem. 1990 Apr; 54(4):1440-8. PMID: 2156023.
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    87. Dienel GA, Nelson T, Cruz NF, Jay T, Crane AM, Sokoloff L. Over-estimation of glucose-6-phosphatase activity in brain in vivo. Apparent difference in rates of [2-3H]glucose and [U-14C]glucose utilization is due to contamination of precursor pool with 14C-labeled products and incomplete recovery of 14C-labeled metabolites. J Biol Chem. 1988 Dec 25; 263(36):19697-708. PMID: 2848837.
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    88. Kiessling M, Dienel GA, Jacewicz M, Pulsinelli WA. Protein synthesis in postischemic rat brain: a two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1986 Dec; 6(6):642-9. PMID: 3793799.
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    89. Dienel GA, Kiessling M, Jacewicz M, Pulsinelli WA. Synthesis of heat shock proteins in rat brain cortex after transient ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1986 Aug; 6(4):505-10. PMID: 3733910.
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    90. Nelson T, Lucignani G, Atlas S, Crane AM, Dienel GA, Sokoloff L. Reexamination of glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the brain in vivo: no evidence for a futile cycle. Science. 1985 Jul 05; 229(4708):60-2. PMID: 2990038.
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    91. Dienel GA, Cruz NF, Rosenfeld SJ. Temporal profiles of proteins responsive to transient ischemia. J Neurochem. 1985 Feb; 44(2):600-10. PMID: 2578182.
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    92. Dienel GA. Regional accumulation of calcium in postischemic rat brain. J Neurochem. 1984 Oct; 43(4):913-25. PMID: 6470713.
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    93. Dienel GA, Cruz NF. Induction of brain ornithine decarboxylase during recovery from metabolic, mechanical, thermal, or chemical injury. J Neurochem. 1984 Apr; 42(4):1053-61. PMID: 6421997.
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    94. Dienel GA. Chronic hyperphenylalaninemia produces cerebral hyperglycinemia in immature rats. J Neurochem. 1981 Jan; 36(1):34-43. PMID: 6257849.
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    95. Dienel GA, Pulsinelli WA, Duffy TE. Regional protein synthesis in rat brain following acute hemispheric ischemia. J Neurochem. 1980 Nov; 35(5):1216-26. PMID: 7452313.
      View in: PubMed
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