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Giulia Baldini

InstitutionUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
DepartmentBiochemistry & Molecular Biology, College of Medicine
AddressB421F Biomedical Research I
325 S. Elm St.
Mail Slot # 516
Little Rock AR 72205
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    • Obesity is a major risk factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome, which is characterized by hypertension, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and increased propensity to develop diabetes type 2.

    • A likely cofactor promoting the alarming increase in obesity in the last 10 years is the availability of food with high caloric and fat content. Exposure to a hypercaloric, high-fat diet induces lipid stress in regions of the hypothalamus controlling appetite.

    • Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed by neurons of the hypothalamus controls appetite and is thereby considered a relevant target for anti-obesity therapies. However, even very potent MC4R agonists do not appear to treat obesity in mice and humans. The underlying mechanisms by which such agonists are ineffective are yet unclear.

    • Our research aims to discover how lipid stress, such as that induced by high fat diet, affects MC4R abundance, signaling, and intracellular traffic; whether chemical chaperones can rescue function of MC4R in lipid stressed neurons; and whether different synthetic MC4R agonists have specific effects to promote MC4R signaling.

    • Our research analyzes MC4R function in cultured hypothalamic neurons, neuronal cells, and the murine hypothalamus by using state-of-the-art techniques, such as Quantitative Fluorescence Microscopy, including Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching, Super-Resolution Microscopy, Electron Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry.

    Collapse Affiliation 
    Collapse member of
    endocrine society

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse awards and honors
    2009 - 2013CADO Study Section, NIH, NIH

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research overview
    Obesity is a major risk factor to develop the metabolic syndrome, characterized by hypertension, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and increased propensity to develop diabetes type 2. A likely cofactor promoting the alarming increase in obesity in the last 10 years is the availability of food with high caloric and fat contnt. Exposure to a hypercaloric, high-fat (HF) diet induces Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation in regions of the hypothalamus controlling appetite. a-MSH is the natural agonist of Melanocortin- 4 receptor (MC4R), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed by neurons of the hypothalamus that signals to decrease appetite. Because MC4R functions distally to control appetite, it has been considered as a most relevant target for anti-obesity therapies. However, even very potent MC4R agonists do not appear to treat obesity in mice and humans and the underlying mechanisms by which such agonists are ineffective are yet unclear. The overall hypothesis of this proposal is that lipid stress induces loss of MC4R function by altering the abundance (Aim 1 and Aim 2) and the traffic (Aim 3) of the receptor and that correcting such defects by chemical chaperones would facilitate weight loss by MC4R agonists. Aim 1 will determine whether adverse effects by increased palmitate on MC4R abundance observed in cultured neurons take place in the hypothalamus of mice exposed to HF-diet. The aim uses lentivirus-dependent delivery of an MC4R reporter to a region of the hypothalamus that controls appetite and measures abundance of endogenous MC4R in the hypothalamus by a mass spectrometry-based approach. Aim 2 will determine, by using biochemical and immunofluoresce-based assays, whether increased expression of transcription factors and chemical chaperones that modulate ER stress rescues MC4R abundance and function in cultured neurons exposed to elevated palmitate. The aim will also determine whether the combination of chemical chaperones and MC4R agonists promote reduced food intake and sustained weight loss in mice that are obese by being exposed to high fat diet. Aim 3 will determine whether exposure of immortalized hypothalamic neurons to elevated palmitate changes the cell lipid composition and traffic of MC4R to increase desensitization of the receptor upon prolonged exposure with the agonist, and whether such effects are blunted by a chemical chaperone. The aim will also determine whether administration of chemical chaperones restores hypothalamic lipid composition in mice obese because of HF diet (Aim 3). The proposed research will increase knowledge on an understudied topic, namely how lipid stress affects MC4R function and help identify new targets to treat obesity.

    Collapse research activities and funding
    P20GM125503     (OBRIEN, CHARLES)Feb 16, 2018 - Jan 31, 2023
    NIH/Nat. Inst. of General Medical Sciences
    Center for Musculoskeletal Disease Research (CMDR)
    Role: Co-Investigator

    R35GM122601     (RANEY, KEVIN DOUGLAS)May 1, 2017 - Apr 30, 2022
    Functions and Mechanisms of Helicases and G-Quadruplex Nucleic Acids
    Role: Co-Investigator

    R01GM117439     (RANEY, KEVIN DOUGLAS)Sep 21, 2015 - Jun 30, 2019
    G-quadruplex DNA as a chemical signaling agent
    Role: Co-Investigator

    S10OD018065     (STORRIE, BRIAN)Jul 1, 2015 - Jun 30, 2017
    Super-Resolution Light Microscope at University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
    Role: Co-Investigator

    R01DK102206     (BALDINI, GIULIA)Sep 15, 2014 - Aug 31, 2020
    Lipid Stress and MC4R
    Role: Principal Investigator

    DBI-0959745     (STORRIE, BRIAN)Jan 15, 2010 - Dec 31, 2012
    National Science Foundation
    120 kV FEI Electron Microscope and Supporting Sample Preparation Equipment for Biological Microscopy
    Role: Co-Investigator

    R01DK080424     (BALDINI, GIULIA)Jun 1, 2009 - Sep 30, 2014
    Melanocortin-4 Receptor Traffic and Signaling
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01DK053293     (BALDINI, GIULIA)Apr 1, 1998 - Mar 31, 2008
    Mechanisms of Hormonal Release by Endocrine Cells
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions. Don't see publications published under other names? Login to add alternative names.
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    1. Delgado M, Rainwater RR, Heflin B, Urbaniak A, Butler K, Davidson M, Protacio RM, Baldini G, Edwards A, Reed MR, Raney KD, Chambers TC. Primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells are susceptible to microtubule depolymerization in G1 and M phases through distinct cell death pathways. J Biol Chem. 2022 06; 298(6):101939. PMID: 35436470.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Nyamugenda E, Griffin H, Russell S, Cooney KA, Kowalczyk NS, Islam I, Phelan KD, Baldini G. Selective Survival of Sim1/MC4R Neurons in Diet-Induced Obesity. iScience. 2020 May 22; 23(5):101114. PMID: 32438321.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Trentzsch M, Nyamugenda E, Miles TK, Griffin H, Russell S, Koss B, Cooney KA, Phelan KD, Tackett AJ, Iyer S, Boysen G, Baldini G. Delivery of phosphatidylethanolamine blunts stress in hepatoma cells exposed to elevated palmitate by targeting the endoplasmic reticulum. Cell Death Discov. 2020; 6:8. PMID: 32123584.
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    4. Iyer S, Melendez-Suchi C, Han L, Baldini G, Almeida M, Jilka RL. Elevation of the unfolded protein response increases RANKL expression. FASEB Bioadv. 2020 Apr; 2(4):207-218. PMID: 32259048.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Baldini G, Phelan KD. The melanocortin pathway and control of appetite-progress and therapeutic implications. J Endocrinol. 2019 04 01; 241(1):R1-R33. PMID: 30812013.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Nyamugenda E, Trentzsch M, Russell S, Miles T, Boysen G, Phelan KD, Baldini G. Injury to hypothalamic Sim1 neurons is a common feature of obesity by exposure to high-fat diet in male and female mice. J Neurochem. 2019 04; 149(1):73-97. PMID: 30615192.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Cooney KA, Molden BM, Kowalczyk NS, Russell S, Baldini G. Lipid stress inhibits endocytosis of melanocortin-4 receptor from modified clathrin-enriched sites and impairs receptor desensitization. J Biol Chem. 2017 10 27; 292(43):17731-17745. PMID: 28878020.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Shields BD, Mahmoud F, Taylor EM, Byrum SD, Sengupta D, Koss B, Baldini G, Ransom S, Cline K, Mackintosh SG, Edmondson RD, Shalin S, Tackett AJ. Indicators of responsiveness to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Sci Rep. 2017 04 11; 7(1):807. PMID: 28400597.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Byrd AK, Zybailov BL, Maddukuri L, Gao J, Marecki JC, Jaiswal M, Bell MR, Griffin WC, Reed MR, Chib S, Mackintosh SG, MacNicol AM, Baldini G, Eoff RL, Raney KD. Evidence That G-quadruplex DNA Accumulates in the Cytoplasm and Participates in Stress Granule Assembly in Response to Oxidative Stress. J Biol Chem. 2016 08 19; 291(34):18041-57. PMID: 27369081.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Molden BM, Cooney KA, West K, Van Der Ploeg LH, Baldini G. Temporal cAMP Signaling Selectivity by Natural and Synthetic MC4R Agonists. Mol Endocrinol. 2015 Nov; 29(11):1619-33. PMID: 26418335.
      View in: PubMed
    11. MacDonald L, Baldini G, Storrie B. Does super-resolution fluorescence microscopy obsolete previous microscopic approaches to protein co-localization? Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1270:255-75. PMID: 25702123.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Fausther M, Lavoie EG, Goree JR, Baldini G, Dranoff JA. NT5E mutations that cause human disease are associated with intracellular mistrafficking of NT5E protein. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e98568. PMID: 24887587.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Cragle FK, Baldini G. Mild lipid stress induces profound loss of MC4R protein abundance and function. Mol Endocrinol. 2014 Mar; 28(3):357-67. PMID: 24506538.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Granell S, Molden BM, Baldini G. Exposure of MC4R to agonist in the endoplasmic reticulum stabilizes an active conformation of the receptor that does not desensitize. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 03; 110(49):E4733-42. PMID: 24248383.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Dranoff JA, Bhatia N, Fausther M, Lavoie EG, Granell S, Baldini G, Hickman DA, Sheung N. Posttranslational regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 by calcium-dependent vesicular exocytosis. Physiol Rep. 2013 Nov; 1(6):e00125. PMID: 24400134.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Granell S, Serra-Juhé C, Martos-Moreno GÁ, Díaz F, Pérez-Jurado LA, Baldini G, Argente J. A novel melanocortin-4 receptor mutation MC4R-P272L associated with severe obesity has increased propensity to be ubiquitinated in the ER in the face of correct folding. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e50894. PMID: 23251400.
      View in: PubMed
    17. McDaniel FK, Molden BM, Mohammad S, Baldini G, McPike L, Narducci P, Granell S, Baldini G. Constitutive cholesterol-dependent endocytosis of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is essential to maintain receptor responsiveness to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(26):21873-90.
    18. McDaniel FK, Molden BM, Mohammad S, Baldini G, McPike L, Narducci P, Granell S, Baldini G. Constitutive cholesterol-dependent endocytosis of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is essential to maintain receptor responsiveness to a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (a-MSH). J Biol Chem. 2012 Jun 22; 287(26):21873-90. PMID: 22544740.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Klionsky DJ, Abdalla FC, Abeliovich H, Abraham RT, Acevedo-Arozena A, Adeli K, Agholme L, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguirre-Ghiso JA, Ahn HJ, Ait-Mohamed O, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akira S, Al-Younes HM, Al-Zeer MA, Albert ML, Albin RL, Alegre-Abarrategui J, Aleo MF, Alirezaei M, Almasan A, Almonte-Becerril M, Amano A, Amaravadi R, Amarnath S, Amer AO, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anantharam V, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Arancia G, Aris JP, Asanuma K, Asare NY, Ashida H, Askanas V, Askew DS, Auberger P, Baba M, Backues SK, Baehrecke EH, Bahr BA, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Baiocchi R, Baldini G, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Bamber BA, Bampton ET, Bánhegyi G, Bartholomew CR, Bassham DC, Bast RC, Batoko H, Bay BH, Beau I, Béchet DM, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Bekri S, Bellaire B, Bendall LJ, Benetti L, Berliocchi L, Bernardi H, Bernassola F, Besteiro S, Bhatia-Kissova I, Bi X, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Blum JS, Boise LH, Bonaldo P, Boone DL, Bornhauser BC, Bortoluci KR, Bossis I, Bost F, Bourquin JP, Boya P, Boyer-Guittaut M, Bozhkov PV, Brady NR, Brancolini C, Brech A, Brenman JE, Brennand A, Bresnick EH, Brest P, Bridges D, Bristol ML, Brookes PS, Brown EJ, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Brunk UT, Bulman DE, Bultman SJ, Bultynck G, Burbulla LF, Bursch W, Butchar JP, Buzgariu W, Bydlowski SP, Cadwell K, Cahová M, Cai D, Cai J, Cai Q, Calabretta B, Calvo-Garrido J, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campos-Salinas J, Candi E, Cao L, Caplan AB, Carding SR, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carlin CR, Carmignac V, Carneiro LA, Carra S, Caruso RA, Casari G, Casas C, Castino R, Cebollero E, Cecconi F, Celli J, Chaachouay H, Chae HJ, Chai CY, Chan DC, Chan EY, Chang RC, Che CM, Chen CC, Chen GC, Chen GQ, Chen M, Chen Q, Chen SS, Chen W, Chen X, Chen X, Chen X, Chen YG, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen YJ, Chen Z, Cheng A, Cheng CH, Cheng Y, Cheong H, Cheong JH, Cherry S, Chess-Williams R, Cheung ZH, Chevet E, Chiang HL, Chiarelli R, Chiba T, Chin LS, Chiou SH, Chisari FV, Cho CH, Cho DH, Choi AM, Choi D, Choi KS, Choi ME, Chouaib S, Choubey D, Choubey V, Chu CT, Chuang TH, Chueh SH, Chun T, Chwae YJ, Chye ML, Ciarcia R, Ciriolo MR, Clague MJ, Clark RS, Clarke PG, Clarke R, Codogno P, Coller HA, Colombo MI, Comincini S, Condello M, Condorelli F, Cookson MR, Coombs GH, Coppens I, Corbalan R, Cossart P, Costelli P, Costes S, Coto-Montes A, Couve E, Coxon FP, Cregg JM, Crespo JL, Cronjé MJ, Cuervo AM, Cullen JJ, Czaja MJ, D'Amelio M, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Davids LM, Davies FE, De Felici M, de Groot JF, de Haan CA, De Martino L, De Milito A, De Tata V, Debnath J, Degterev A, Dehay B, Delbridge LM, Demarchi F, Deng YZ, Dengjel J, Dent P, Denton D, Deretic V, Desai SD, Devenish RJ, Di Gioacchino M, Di Paolo G, Di Pietro C, Díaz-Araya G, Díaz-Laviada I, Diaz-Meco MT, Diaz-Nido J, Dikic I, Dinesh-Kumar SP, Ding WX, Distelhorst CW, Diwan A, Djavaheri-Mergny M, Dokudovskaya S, Dong Z, Dorsey FC, Dosenko V, Dowling JJ, Doxsey S, Dreux M, Drew ME, Duan Q, Duchosal MA, Duff K, Dugail I, Durbeej M, Duszenko M, Edelstein CL, Edinger AL, Egea G, Eichinger L, Eissa NT, Ekmekcioglu S, El-Deiry WS, Elazar Z, Elgendy M, Ellerby LM, Eng KE, Engelbrecht AM, Engelender S, Erenpreisa J, Escalante R, Esclatine A, Eskelinen EL, Espert L, Espina V, Fan H, Fan J, Fan QW, Fan Z, Fang S, Fang Y, Fanto M, Fanzani A, Farkas T, Farré JC, Faure M, Fechheimer M, Feng CG, Feng J, Feng Q, Feng Y, Fésüs L, Feuer R, Figueiredo-Pereira ME, Fimia GM, Fingar DC, Finkbeiner S, Finkel T, Finley KD, Fiorito F, Fisher EA, Fisher PB, Flajolet M, Florez-McClure ML, Florio S, Fon EA, Fornai F, Fortunato F, Fotedar R, Fowler DH, Fox HS, Franco R, Frankel LB, Fransen M, Fuentes JM, Fueyo J, Fujii J, Fujisaki K, Fujita E, Fukuda M, Furukawa RH, Gaestel M, Gailly P, Gajewska M, Galliot B, Galy V, Ganesh S, Ganetzky B, Ganley IG, Gao FB, Gao GF, Gao J, Garcia L, Garcia-Manero G, Garcia-Marcos M, Garmyn M, Gartel AL, Gatti E, Gautel M, Gawriluk TR, Gegg ME, Geng J, Germain M, Gestwicki JE, Gewirtz DA, Ghavami S, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. Autophagy. 2012 Apr; 8(4):445-544. PMID: 22966490.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Smith SE, Granell S, Salcedo-Sicilia L, Baldini G, Egea G, Teckman JH, Baldini G. Activating transcription factor 6 limits intracellular accumulation of mutant alpha(1)-antitrypsin Z and mitochondrial damage in hepatoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(48):41563-77.
    21. Smith SE, Granell S, Salcedo-Sicilia L, Baldini G, Egea G, Teckman JH, Baldini G. Activating transcription factor 6 limits intracellular accumulation of mutant a(1)-antitrypsin Z and mitochondrial damage in hepatoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2011 Dec 02; 286(48):41563-41577. PMID: 21976666.
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    22. Granell S, Mohammad S, Baldini G. Ser312 and Thr329 are essential to block melanocortin-4 receptor recycling to the plasma membrane in response to a-MSH. 2011.
    23. Granell S, Mohammad S, Bojappa R, Reynolds K, Kim A, Baldini G. Two melanocortin-4 receptor mutations linked to morbid human obesity have defective maturation along the secretory pathway and are retained in the ER. 2011.
    24. Mohammad S, Molden B, Granell S, McDaniel F, Smith N, McPike L, Baldini G. MC4R constitutive internalization occurs by a new type of clathrin-dependent endocytosis that is sensitive to cholesterol depletion. 2011.
    25. Granell S, Smith S, Mohammad S, Baldini G. Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response by ATF6 Accelerates Degradation of Mutated a1-Antitrypsin but Promotes Apoptosis under ER Stress. 2011.
    26. Granell S, Mohammad S, Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa R, Baldini G. Obesity-linked variants of melanocortin-4 receptor are misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum and can be rescued to the cell surface by a chemical chaperone. Mol Endocrinol. 2010 Sep; 24(9):1805-21. PMID: 20631012.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Mondal AK, Das SK, Baldini G, Chu WS, Sharma NK, Hackney OG, Zhao J, Grant SF, Elbein SC. Genotype and tissue-specific effects on alternative splicing of the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95(3):1450-7.
    28. Baldini G. Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response by ATF6 Accelerates Degradation of Mutated a-1 antitrypsin. Alpha-1 Foundation Investigators’ meeting. 2010.
    29. Granell S, Baldini G. Inclusion bodies and autophagosomes: are ER-derived protective organelles different than classical autophagosomes? Autophagy. 2008 Apr; 4(3):375-7. PMID: 18212527.
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    30. Granell S, Baldini G, Mohammad S, Nicolin V, Narducci P, Storrie B, Baldini G. Sequestration of mutated alpha1-antitrypsin into inclusion bodies is a cell-protective mechanism to maintain endoplasmic reticulum function. Mol Biol Cell. 2008 Feb; 19(2):572-86. PMID: 18045994.
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    31. Mohammad S, Baldini G, Granell S, Narducci P, Martelli AM, Baldini G. Constitutive traffic of melanocortin-4 receptor in Neuro2A cells and immortalized hypothalamic neurons. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 16; 282(7):4963-4974. PMID: 17166828.
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    32. Baldini G, Martelli AM, Tabellini G, Horn C, Machaca K, Narducci P, Baldini G. Rabphilin localizes with the cell actin cytoskeleton and stimulates association of granules with F-actin cross-linked by {alpha}-actinin. J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 14; 280(41):34974-84. PMID: 16043482.
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    33. Chieregatti E, Chicka MC, Chapman ER, Baldini G. SNAP-23 functions in docking/fusion of granules at low Ca2+. Mol Biol Cell. 2004 Apr; 15(4):1918-30. PMID: 14742706.
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    34. Koticha DK, McCarthy EE, Baldini G. Plasma membrane targeting of SNAP-25 increases its local concentration and is necessary for SNARE complex formation and regulated exocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2002 Aug 15; 115(Pt 16):3341-51. PMID: 12140265.
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    35. Pothos EN, Mosharov E, Liu KP, Setlik W, Haburcak M, Baldini G, Gershon MD, Tamir H, Sulzer D. Stimulation-dependent regulation of the pH, volume and quantal size of bovine and rodent secretory vesicles. J Physiol. 2002 Jul 15; 542(Pt 2):453-76. PMID: 12122145.
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    36. Chieregatti E, Witkin JW, Baldini G. SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1 function in Ca2+-dependent reversible docking of granules to the plasma membrane. Traffic. 2002 Jul; 3(7):496-511. PMID: 12047557.
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    37. Martelli AM, Baldini GE, Tabellini G, Koticha D, Bareggi R, Baldini G. Rab3A and Rab3D control the total granule number and the fraction of granules docked at the plasma membrane in PC12 cells. Traffic. 2000; 1(12):976 - 986.
    38. Koticha DK, Huddleston SJ, Witkin JW, Baldini G. Role of the cysteine-rich domain of the t-SNARE component, SYNDET, in membrane binding and subcellular localization. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274(13):9053 - 9060.
    39. Baldini G, Wang G, Weber M, Zweyer M, Bareggi R, Witkin JW, Martelli AM. Expression of Rab3D N135I inhibits regulated secretion of ACTH in AtT-20 cells. J Cell Biol. 1998; 140(2):305 - 313.
    40. Baldini G. Proprotein Processing, Trafficking & Secretion "Role of Rab3 Proteins in ACTH Secretion". Gordon Research Conferences; 1998;. Gordon Research Conferences. 1998.
    41. Wang G, Witkin JW, Hao G, Bankaitis VA, Scherer PE, Baldini G. Syndet is a novel SNAP-25 related protein expressed in many tissues. J Cell Sci. 1997; 110 ( Pt 4):505 - 513.
    42. Guerre-Millo M, Baldini G, Lodish HF, Lavau M, Cushman SW. Rab 3D in rat adipose cells and its overexpression in genetic obesity (Zucker fatty rat). Biochem J. 1997; 321 ( Pt 1):89 - 93.
    43. Scherer PE, Lederkremer GZ, Williams S, Fogliano M, Baldini G, Lodish HF. Cab45, a novel (Ca2+)-binding protein localized to the Golgi lumen. J Cell Biol. 1996; 133(2):257 - 268.
    44. Scherer PE, Williams S, Fogliano M, Baldini G, Lodish HF. A novel serum protein similar to C1q, produced exclusively in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1995; 270(45):26746 - 26749.
    45. Martelli AM, Bareggi R, Baldini GE, Scherer PE, Lodish HF, Baldini G. Diffuse vesicular distribution of Rab3D in the polarized neuroendocrine cell line AtT-20. FEBS Lett. 1995; 368(2):271 - 275.
    46. Baldini G, Scherer PE, Lodish HF. Nonneuronal expression of Rab3A: induction during adipogenesis and association with different intracellular membranes than Rab3D. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995; 92(10):4284 - 4288.
    47. Scherer PE, Lisanti MP, Baldini G, Sargiacomo M, Mastick CC, Lodish HF. Induction of caveolin during adipogenesis and association of GLUT4 with caveolin-rich vesicles. J Cell Biol. 1994; 127(5):1233 - 1243.
    48. Baldini G, Hohl T, Lin HY, Lodish HF. Cloning of a Rab3 isotype predominantly expressed in adipocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992; 89(11):5049 - 5052.
    49. Baldini G, Hohman R, Charron MJ, Lodish HF. Insulin and nonhydrolyzable GTP analogs induce translocation of GLUT 4 to the plasma membrane in alpha-toxin-permeabilized rat adipose cells. J Biol Chem. 1991; 266(7):4037 - 4040.
    50. Miccio M, Baldini G, Basso V, Gazzin B, Lunazzi GC, Tiribelli C, Sottocasa GL. Bilitranslocase is the protein responsible for the electrogenic movement of sulfobromophthalein in plasma membrane vesicles from rat liver: immunochemical evidence using mono- and poly-clonal antibodies. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989; 981(1):115 - 120.
    51. Baldini G, Martoglio B, Schachenmann A, Zugliani C, Brunner J. Mischarging Escherichia coli tRNAPhe with L-4'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenylalanine, a photoactivatable analogue of phenylalanine. Biochemistry. 1988; 27(20):7951 - 7959.
    52. Orzes N, Tamaro G, Parco S, Baldini G, Lunazzi GC, Sottocasa GL, Mangiarotti MA, Tiribelli C. Serum free fatty acids and bilirubin concentration during fasting in patients with Gilbert's syndrome and normal controls. Ric Clin Lab. 1987; 17(1):61 - 66.
    53. Baldini G, Passamonti S, Lunazzi GC, Tiribelli C, Sottocasa GL. Cellular localization of sulfobromophthalein transport activity in rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986; 856(1):1 - 10.
    54. Gentile S, Bajema BL, Baldini G, Lunazzi G, Groothuis GM, Tiribelli C, Meijer DK, Sottocasa GL. Measurement of the association of cholephylic organic anions with different binding proteins. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985; 34(14):2439 - 2444.
    55. Gentile S, Persico M, Baldini G, Lunazzi G, Tiribelli C, Sottocasa GL. The implication of bilitranslocase function in the impaired rifamycin SV metabolism in Gilbert's syndrome. Clin Sci (Lond). 1985; 68(6):675 - 680.
    56. Gentile S, Tiribelli C, Baldini G, Lunazzi G, Sottocasa GL. Sex differences of nicotinate-induced hyperbilirubinemia in Gilbert's syndrome. Implication of bilitranslocase function. J Hepatol. 1985; 1(4):417 - 429.
    57. Sottocasa GL, Baldini G. Molecular aspects of hepatic organic anion transport. Ital J Biochem. 1984; 33(4):262A - 266A.
    58. Sottocasa GL, Baldini G, Sandri G, Lunazzi G, Tiribelli C. Reconstitution in vitro of sulfobromophthalein transport by bilitranslocase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982; 685(2):123 - 128.
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